The density of steel is intricately tied to the formation of elemental bonds in its alloy. Take the example of mild steel. You know mild steel it’s a category of carbon steel, whose composition is strictly restricted to carbon and iron. In carbon steel alloys, knowing the chemical composition, namely the content of carbon, is extremely important. The interplay between carbon content and alloy characteristics is profound.

Whether it’s steel or stainless steel, adjusting carbon levels correlates with shifts in properties, even affecting weldability. Reduce carbon; bonds slacken; increase it; bonds tighten. Mild steel boasts a good amount of carbon. Speaking about all conventional carbon steel grades, the density for most alloys would range from 7.75 g/cm2 to 8.05 g/cm2.

This, of course, will depend on how tightly those atoms have formed intermolecular bonds. What about the carbon content? Well, comparatively, it is fractional to the total alloy’s chemistry! So the carbon content here would lie somewhere between 0.16% and 0.29%. Thus, mild steel has a solid density of 7.8 g/cm2.

Density is a key factor in shaping the attributes of carbon steel, notably influencing its tensile strength and hardness. Higher densities in carbon steel correspond to heightened resistance against deformation, albeit potentially compromising ductility. Calculating the density of a carbon steel alloy involves measuring its weight and volume and then applying a conversion factor to derive the density value.

Carbon steel possesses distinctive properties contributing to its durability:

  • Dark appearance due to the high carbon content.
  • Varied hardness based on carbon content adjustments.
  • High ductility in low-carbon steels.
  • Strength and brittleness in very high-carbon steels.
  • Susceptibility to rust due to the absence of alloying elements.
  • Unsuitability for cryogenic environments, affecting toughness.
  • Wear resistance is enhanced by cold-forming.
  • Relative lightness compared to stainless steel is attributed to distant bonding.

It is important for the engineers to know the Density during the selection of steel material. Every steel & alloy have different density. We have browsed many sites and sources to collect all the density at one place. We have chosen the most demandable grades used in Industrial applications such as Oil & Gas, Petrochemicals, Cement, Pharmaceuticals, Water desalination and many others. For easiness we have divided the alloys into 10 Categories which are:

  • Carbon Steel
  • Mild Steel
  • Alloy Steel (Low & Medium)
  • Stainless Steel
  • Duplex & Super Duplex Steel
  • Nickel Alloys
  • Titanium Alloys
  • Copper & Copper Nickel
  • Brass
  • Aluminium

Density Of Steel

Check Density of carbon steel pipes in kg/m3 and lb/in3

Density of Carbon Steel:

Below ASTM specification covers carbon steel seamless and welded pipes.

ASTM Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
ASTM A53 Grade B 7,85 0.283 lb/in3
ASTM A106 Grade B 7,86 0.284 lb/in3

Know the mass per unit volume of Mild steel which is also known as low-carbon steel

Density of Mild Steel

MS Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
ASTM A572 7,966 0.282
IS 1239
IS 3589
7,860 0.283
IS 2062 7,850 0.283
ASTM A36 7,800 0.281

Density of Alloy Steel (Low/ Medium)

Refer Hot Rolled UNS K11597 (P11) and UNS S50400 (P9) steel pipes density

Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
Low Alloy Steel 7,500 to 8,080 0.271 to 0.292
Medium Alloy Steel 6,600 to 7,860 0.238 to 0.284
P9 Pipe (9 Cr-1 Mo Alloy Steel) 7,850 0.283
P11 Pipe (1-1/4 Cr-1/2 Mo Alloy Steel) 7,850 0.283

Density of Stainless Steel

There are 200 series (austenitic), 300 series (austenitic), and 400 series (martensitic) in stainless steel, check the density details below
SS Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
201
202
301
302
303
304
304L
304LN
305
7,930 kg/m3  0.286 lb/in³
309S
310S
316
316L
316Ti
316LN
317
317L
347
7,980 kg/m3 0.288 lb/in³
SS 904L 7,980 kg/m3 0.288 lb/in³
321 8,027 kg/m3 0.289 lb/in³
403
410
410S
416
431
7,750 kg/m3 0.280 lb/in³
440A 7,740 kg/m3 0.280 lb/in³
440C 7,620 kg/m3 0.275 lb/in³
420 7,730 kg/m3 0.280 lb/in³
439
430
430F
7,700 kg/m3 0.278 lb/in³
434 7,740 kg/m3 0.280 lb/in³
444 7,750 kg/m3 0.280 lb/in³
405 7,720 kg/m3 0.279 lb/in³
17-4PH (martensitic) 7,750 kg/m3 0.279 lb/in³
17-7 PH (semi-austenitic) 7,810 kg/m3 0.282 lb/in³

Density of Duplex & Super Duplex Steel

Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
DSS 2205 (UNS S31803) 7,800 0.282
SDSS 2507 (UNS S32750) 7,850 0.284
A286 Grade 660 (UNS S66286) 7,920 0.286
254 SMO (UNS S31254) 8,100 0.292

Density of Nickel Alloys

Nickel based alloys can withstand with high temperature and most expensive compared to stainless steel. Find the density of most usable nickel alloys

Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
Ni 200/ 201 8890 0.321
Monel 400 (UNS N04400) 8860 0.320
Monel K500 (UNS N05500) 8300 0.299
Inconel 600 (UNS N06600) 8410 0.303
Inconel 601 (UNS N06601) 8050 0.290
Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) 8440 0.304
Inconel 718 (UNS N07718) 8220 0.296
Alloy 20 (N08020) 8050 0.290
Incoloy 800/H/HT (UNS N08800, N08810, and N08811) 8030 0.290
Incoloy 825 (UNS N08825) 8140 0.294
Hastelloy C276 (UNS N10276) 8870 0.320
Hastelloy C22 (UNS N06022) 8690 0.313

Density of Titanium Alloys

Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
Grade 2 Titanium (UNS R50400) 4,510 0.162
Grade 9 Titanium (UNS R56320) 4,480 0.161

Density of Copper & Copper Nickel

Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
Oxygen Free Copper- OFC (UNS C10200) 8,940 0.322
Electrolytic Tough Pitch (ETP) Copper (UNS C11000) 8,890 0.321
Copper Nickel 70/30 (UNS C71500) 8,940 0.322
Copper Nickel 90/10 (UNS C70600) 8,940 0.322

Density of Brass

Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
Free-Cutting Brass (UNS C36000) 8,490 0.307
Cartridge Brass (UNS C26000) 8,530 0.308

Density of Aluminium

Grades Density in kg/m3 Density in lb/in3
2040 2800 0.101
3560 2680 0.096
4430 2700 0.097
1060 2705 0.097
1100 2710 0.097
2014 2800 0.101
2024 2780 0.100
3003 2730 0.098
3004 2720 0.098
5052 2680 0.096
5083 2660 0.096
5086 2660 0.096
5154 2660 0.096
5254 2660 0.096
5454 2690 0.097
5456 2660 0.096
5652 2670 0.096
6061 2700 0.097
6063 2700 0.097

Sources: ASME BPVC section II part D -2019, Table PRD and ENG-TIPS

The formula to calculate density

The straight forward formula to calculate the density of steel in kg/m3 is dividing the object’s mass by volume. Both metric and imperial units are permissible.
Density (D) = Mass (M)/Volume (V)

Formula to Calculate Density in Kg/m3

Convert g/cm3 to kg/mm3

Standard units for mass and volume are kilogram and m3. However, if the laboratory measurements use grams and cm3, users can just change the units into carbon steel density kg m3 by multiplying by 1000.
1 kg/mm3 = 0.000001 g/cm³.

Convert lbs/in3 to kg/m3

The US uses Imperial units (lb/pounds) to measure density. Users can directly convert lbs per cubic inches to kg/m3:
1 lb/in³ = 27679.9 kg/m³

Steel density comparison chart:


Density of steel

The steel density lb/in3 can be presented below.

Steel Name Density (g/cm3) Density (lb/in3)
AISI 1020 7.87 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in3
AISI 1045 7.85 g/cm3 0.283 lb/in3
AISI 1018 7.87 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in3
ASTM A36 7.85 g/cm3 0.283 lb/in3
C45 7.85 g/cm3 0.283 lb/in3
S45C 7.85 g/cm3 0.283 lb/in3
AISI 1045 7.85 g/cm3 0.283 lb/in3
AISI 1010 7.87 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in3
  • Density of carbon steel lb in3 (plain): 7.75 to 8.05 g/cm3 or 0.280 to 0.291 lb/in3
  • Low Carbon Steel (Mild Steel): 7.85 g/cm3 or 0.284 lb/in3
  • Density of mild steel in g cm3: 7.75 to 8.05 g/cm3 or 0.280 to 0.291 lb/in3
  • High Carbon Steel: 7.75 to 8.05 g/cm3 or 0.280 to 0.291 lb/in3

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